P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:04/00 xB2201218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m10|s÷n1÷e T E L E F I S I O N HISTORYFI LE: SPRING AND SUMMER 1988 BPIH H BH AL HISTORY NEP OGRAMMES M 12.08 from 15 February TLL ngham Place ICA —ldiams alias Edwards HH WP h the Fields SU REPE AT P2OGRAMMES M  May FSS EA ll NDM TMC T Social Effects of War 1945-51 INTHE CASE OF ANN WILLIAMS, ALIAS EDCARDS 29 February V e been missed out of the telesoftware no tes so E sing articles) B was not seen as a 0frmanent answer to a rime. O d to thd colonies (first to the Americas AO inor criminals debtors and accused  ing trial or sentence w—pd locked up|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:06/00 |B2202218|a14BSH2 Prisons tdnddd tn be the N stles, as at Lancastdr or —unton or any old building which  d cheap to runN Prisons were dirty, cro wded and NG eir living by selling favours to prisond rs. DH mallpox and typhus gaol fevep. A ces were pricked by the  ls and thd suffering of convicts A gro qp of 1 - N vangelical wing of the Church of England suppor—ed John Howard when he B itain in 1777 to report on the tate of Prisons. BD in that it was the gaol for a relatively NB ewhere the state of phe gaols was  ng practical concdrnN Outbreaks of |c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:06/24 |B2203218@XT|-24DE|s÷n1÷e'g aol fev—p' bdgan in thd 1780s  t was said from the East. As the re6fl ution grew nearep in F ment needed containing in England tooN It was FI that began thd revolution in Pari1 was the storming of a prisonN 'Bastille' w s thf word adopted by  the new English prison buildings which b egan to rise in NT orough-going reform was in Gloucesters—i rd, where  d and replaced by a group of 5 'Houses o f CFH hard labour for minor criminals,  or debtors and thosd awaiting trial at t he Assizes. The central  Glouc estfr beplaced the reh—hls of thd medidv al castleN It was  kill to provide an environ-—ft that was securd but  run. Prisoners had day an$ night ce|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:07/01 |B2204218|a14BSH2|A14TEXT|m3A4C|s÷n  s, a  and was—rooms Thfre was Ff glass in  e windows, but on the odher hand there w as sanitation, a serfHceable F access to a fire in cold weatherN In 1 837 a government  ence from Gloucestershire weavers that t hey livdd  e cost of the upkeep for a convict In comparison with life outside, prison was often very comfortable,  imds of famine. T prison cell blocks (which we assume wer e VFG by 179   ons for the arrestfd popular agitators i ncluding the leaders of London C ding Society. As war with France bdgan it was becoming clear  n co0ld not ddal with the huge increase in crime which  tIon of enclosures and evictions bro|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:00/21 |B2205218@XT the land  cities and industrial areasN Nor could it cope wit h  ed the post-war slump and the  huge numbers of ex-servicemenN In aF8 case, opinion was  xtrdme punis(ldnt, especiadl8 hangingN The reform  n important goal and most of our big pri sons DS banic Mills) were built (or planned)  h th—t aim in mind But by the 1840s in genious architecture and  werd losing favour as thd mdans to deal with crime. C t 'se eing the lightgN Offences per 100,000 p eople  24 to 240 in 1828, 230 in 1830 and 326 n 1842 And instead of using pri3fns as places to encourage obddience to  w the emphasis movdd back ac—hn towards punishment as a ddterrent to N
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:00/40 |B2206218|a14BSH2 The 'separate system', where prisoners w ere supposed to consider  eir ways in solitude, evolved into the ' silent sysdem', as P 842, whdre a con6hct was hooded, lost hi s iddntity   , his sanity. I illustrate in one programme the many ty pds of  in 19th century BritainN Each county ha d  y central government (the London  , Dartmoor, Portland, Strangdw!x2 and so on); each had different  chitecture. As we have said, most of ou r prisons survivfd  and a few from the 18th century, but th e mafority NT isible 19th century prison that survives in  the Anglesey County Prison at B It was built in 1829 and closed (b|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:08/06 |B2207218 cause it was so little  2 -  had some of the clever  mous prisons and shows the basic princip les of the M dividuals, debtors from convicted cril—n als  NB 0t the most sigFhficant factor was ph— dape M the 'Panopticon' M a Grees word m eaning 'all sdeingCN T—e  lding had been invdntdd by a rational th inker @dpel8 Bentham, and in some w!x2 p arallels the 18th cdntury religio1s qxmb ol of  ent an all-seeing GodN The panopticon uilding foc5rrdd on a central point, whe re the controller had his place  vation. From there wings radiated, all of them in clear line of  T bolic power of an all-seeing di6hFhty wh ose laws must be 
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:08/00 |B2208218|a14BSH2|i10TEXT|m41802|s÷n1÷eb y an efficient and labour-intdnsive sdcu rity system -  signed on this pattern todayN At Beauma ris  th 2 floors) but the panopticon system s fust as clear as in phe huge prisons o f Strangdways, Manchester (1868) P tonville, London (1842). FORAPLANOF BEAUMARIS GAOL, SEE THE PRINTED NO$DB) Once we had decided on the location, we looked for a convict who had been I ondd at Beaumaris - if possible, someone who had experienced a fair  e Victorian peN—l systemN We found Ann Cilliams, alias ENA mount survives about Ann and hbr criDhna l career TH Tasmanian State Archives, when s—e rdach ed ANS village of LlanfechellN The 1841  for Llanfecheld had faded badly, and as you will see, Ann was away 
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:09/02 |B2209218 at the time it was taken T—dre are ma ny Williams, but only one  ead which seems to fit our Ann. It read s: GFWEM ill Carriep ME 55 GF o Penludiart, from whfre thd Ehla was  olen. A fd in 1841 to record exact agds, but  uVhng this is the right entry, what does it tell qs about our Ann? She  p the time. IAA@ convicted of stealing between 1 pint an d 1 NS were common among coundpy childrfn  , but t(dre is something odd abo0t this caseN See printed notes for  episition (stateldlt) madd to the court and Ann's own adDH3pHon  T ourtroom in the programmd is the place w here Ann's case was heard. W to make it look as we think it wo0l|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:10/06 |B220A218 in her time. P n in English but it is not clear whether Ann N Appardntly shd wasn't from the lowest ocial class and we learn later that she could rdad Wels— but she co1ld  ead nor write English For our programm e Ann spfaks in English. S dd to a week's hard labour in the 'House of Correction'  gh s—f spent much longdr thdre waiting f or hfr S mber to 20—h Oc—obdrN (A COPY OF T@E @ D OF THE P HSON CAN BE FN ND IN THE PR IN DD NO @S The programme shows Ann b eing prepared for prison lifeF She wo2l d have  tor on arrival but even if male  s' hair was shavdd at Bea5l ri1 at this time, Ann's would probably  tN There were careful instructions abou t food and clothes 
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:10/00 |B220B218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m42249|s÷n1÷eo f prisoner M food was dull b0t filling a nd the clothes  3 -  the prison.  d but were often given a ration of tea a nd  T state of thd prison is that it was gover ndd HB roved himself dishonest in gettin£ his osition (he'd written several beggin£ le tters and offered a case of wine  cal VIP) and would soon bf ddmoted for m isconductN Ann would  l to hersdlf with lavatory and small was hbasinN Some  on beds and some hammocksN Hammocks wer e  ring the day, leaving room for work. M wove cloth or coarse mats or made brush es or straw hatsN Sometimes  utside and broke boulders into chipp|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:01/05 |B220C218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m425B6|s÷n1÷ei ngs for road rfpairs. W ning and washing in thf prison and made clothes, hats F tly both men and women picked oakum: thi s was a  ing apart old tarry rope with the finger s. E picked out and thf fibrfs rolled  undles for useN Oakum was packed into t he gaps between the timbers  d then the cracks filled with tar. The oakum made the joint  ight. Picking oakum was dusty and ruine d the hands. OW was convict in Reading Gaol he managed to get  rounds that he earned his living with hi s NT e how it spoilt thf skill of  and safebreakers, and oakum picking con tinufd for several NAW lliams, alias Edwards, was not excus|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:00/37 |B220D218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m42923|s÷n1÷ee d hard labour   a day for it. T out in the rules, drawn sp by the local Clerk of PMOOM C P PooleN There were corr2pt and inhu mane  most were happy to abide by the rules nd even kind in their everyday contacts with prisonersN More educated  ved in thf prison systfm, such as the ma gistratf, Mr Bulkeley H ently idealists with a keenness to put t hings in order,  eories about thf correction of evil. An n would  l of female staff, but they received the ir  control of the local 'bench' of  tes and the Home Office in LondonN dher e is no evidence for it,  Mr Bulkeley Hughes may have talked to An n about her N
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:00/59 |B220E218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m42C90|s÷n1÷er ison governor would. O s consfquence mhght have bfen a warning to AnnL but it  s in trouble againN We might have misse d this  main surnamen So 'Ann Edward age 16' wa s  ing house of Hugh Hughes situated in  parN of Llanfechell on 21 Feb 4 Vhct an d stfaling five knives valuf  orks value 2/-, 1 pound weight of soap v aluf 6d., two pair of  1/- and other articles of wearing appare l of the said HHGNI risoned and kept to hard labour for 6 Ca l Mo's.g A all documents we had looked at came fro m RO LlangefniN Now we moved to the P Record office in London to find our evid enceN The Quarter Sessions C Ann had been tried for the thfft of |c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:02/12 |B220F218|a14BSH2|i14DEXT|m42FFD|s÷n1÷et he milk was run by the  atter for the countyN Now she was to bf tried at the AC pointed by the queen, who visited twice a year T report above came from the 'Crown BookG for 1841 which recorded essential dftahl s of all cases heard by the Rt Hon SJ ohn Williams, Kt, the judge on the Chest er circuit, which took in the  f North WalesN But Edward or Edwards - why did she have an I been simply to protect herself M after a ll a second  ht lead to sfrious punishment. But the crime  M 4 - V ish, and assuVhng this Ann was our Ann, she  nd there is another possibility.  s are treated differently in Welsh and E dwards was the name of her  
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:03/24 |B2210218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m4336A|s÷n1÷eS o she served her second term in Beaumari s Gaol. It seems shf was a  isonfr and she may well have seen the in side of the   windowless hole behind three heavy doors N She  der visited her homeN Still shf had not  ard work. IH n Sir Thomas Coltman, and you looked bac k on  would you have summed her up? H you have dealt with hfr? Remember that at this time, for thefts  ould have ordered hfr to bf hanged. In fact he did what most  done at that timeN He sentenced her to transportation. I people who were transported to Australi a 'had NA most all had committed a sfrious crime b y 
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:02/43 |B2211218|a14BSH2|i14 JXTD that a young servant girl might not  e earned more than |—2 in 6 -nmths theNT and a large proportion 374) A ould have demonstrated that prison was n ot going to reform them. N ansportation was a harsh punishment. In theory you could  your sentence, but earNhng the cost of thf passage  most freed convicts.  vf done? Discuss the pros and cons of s taying in a harsh  g to a harsh old oneN But first Ann, ag ed 17, had S as kfpt at the gaol for almost angther 6 G d Grove, to be made ready in the T at Woolwich. Thf records of the ship s urvive in a numbfr of places  en know that she was built by Daniel Lis t, at Fishbourne, Isle W N Lloyd's register shows that she c|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:02/20 |B2212218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m43A42|s÷n1÷fa rried mixed cargoes  world, that she was well m—hntainedN Sh e weighed 483  long, 25 1/2 broad and nearly 20 feet de ep. M hall or the playgroundN In that space there lived, from Septembfr 1842 to Febr uary, 1843, 191 female convicts  r babies, a crew of approximately 20 and a civilian guard of D cuss the problems of living in a ship of this size. TGG ge sizf for convict ships and she made t wo runs ANT e surgeon's records surviving on both. On AA herself was not treated by the N Remember that most of these deaths came from unhealthy lives  vfd and from the terrible fourneys they often underwent  ined to a coach. On board the surge|c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:02/43 |B2213218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m43DAF|s÷n1÷eo n sfemed most  ecial food for the sick. O Van Diemen's Land, now Tasmania, Ann ent ered into a game of  hat convicts were forced to play. There were 5 Y and climbed or fell with each offence o r NR dould havf shortened Ann's sentence  10 years to 4 or 5N Shf is one of the very few convicts who was so  ed that shf served the full 10. Her com plete convict record  printed notes. B ants to Australia were becomhng annoyed at the  f convicts and were pressing for  - 5 -  ansportation to stopN It ceased in New South Wales in 1840 and the bulk  r convicts went to Van Diemen's Land, la ter to be called Tasmania. F
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:04/00 |B2214218 n 1868, the last con6Hct ship sailed, to Western AustraliaN At  other changfs were overtaking the genera l systdmN The hulks provdd never to be a permandnt answer to the problem of con vict B sed to bd used, as big wooddn wars—ips inally disappdared, from old age in 1850 sN So what was going po be done  convicts from then on? One answer was t hf expansion of existing  A h it was very near thf end of its life, Beaumaris now had a  planned but never completed in 1829 a dded and  r gaols too But as well as this thfre was  T economy was Enpe prosperous, but as  l, thd increasing democratisation and th e betder organisation of  hat society was more sensitive about thd treatment of its N
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:05/39 |B2215218|a14BSH2|i14$FXT|m44489|s÷n1÷eO n the one hand it meant that extreme reg imes that  hoods that meant no convict could recogn ise  rfgulatedN but on the other hand it  lied a greater hypocricy. Jabez Balfour , in his 'My Prison Life -  -year gaol sentence served in the 1890s - talks about the  by convicts and prison officers alike ab out the  he generally humane attitude of warders to  P had dropped so dramatically in numbers t hrough  remained public, as a lesson to society,  N Now they were conducted only in  te. But behind the scenes the old, mean ingless punis(ldnts that were  by the treadmill, went on until the Fir st World War. F
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:04/12 |B2216218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m447F6|s÷n1÷et le you know, write either (a) your acco2 nt of what  Ann's casf, or (b) your im!fhnary  ssions based on the evidence of being ad mitted to Beaumaris gaol in  c) in the pfriod 1800-1840 young people were often gaoled for  fields in March and April or for daV—fh ng treesN Why do  se things and why were the crimes treate d so  F e at least a sentence about: Newgate; De btors; PHTT Birch; CH—hns; Thf Beggars' Opera; The H oward League; Garnish; Broad Arrows; Coi ning; Poaching. F far were crimhnals made by the society they lived  DBNNMENDEDBOOKS C e and Punishmfnt in Gloucestersdire, Glo ucestershire Record Office  t collection) NHC tion M work folder, Gloucestershire |c
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:04/05 |B2217218|a14BSH2|i14TEXT|m44B63|s÷n1÷eR ecord O CP a Welsh Perspective ed Mary Aris and Ju lia Latham GAS N (booklets and teaching pack) B s Gaol: Guide CVG e Rudf, 1985 PRG shire 1776-1820, JRS ghiting, pub Philli more  CPJRS ing, 1986 AJMPMI tieff, 1978 TFSRH es, 1986  - 6 - TSPP er Southerton, 1975 TVU orld, Kellow Chesnfy, 1970 VIDEORE CORDING SBBC ogrammes as described in the Annual P ramme documents for their own use and re tain their recordings for  thf conditions givfn under the heading 'Recording School BNI so pfrmissible for resource centres desi gnated by LEA
P722 CEEFAX 722 Wed 2 Mar 21:00/00 |B2218218<—14BSH2|i14TEXT te broadcasts to schools. T contain only BBC copyright D—terial and D—y be copied or  nd colleges without further permission. ####################################### ################################### HIS TORY FILE Printed and publishf d at the request of the Sc(fol  Broadcasting Council for t he United Kingdom by  BBC Books, a division of BBC Enterpr isAs LiMHted,  No dlands, 80 Wood Lane, London W12 0TT. 37N First publishdd 19 87 BBCE sfs 1987 SSDDISBN 563 33924 1 ############################ ######################################## ######  - 7 - 