P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 3 Feb 21:01/31 |B2201205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m10÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷eT E L E V I S I O N÷e÷e÷eISSU ES÷e÷e÷eTEACHERS NO$FS÷e÷e÷eTransmission 28th January 12.25 BBC2÷erepeated 1st F ebruary 12.30 BBC2÷e÷eFAMINE÷e÷eThis pro gramme concentrates on looking at some o f the reasons for M and÷epossible soluti ons to M the current falhne in EthiopiaN However, several÷eof the snderlying ca uses, and solutions, are broadly applica ble to other÷eThird World countries.÷e÷e One of the main causfs of famhne, in par ticular in the Highlands, is÷eerosion, c aused partly by climatic factors but com pounded by loss of trees÷eand overgrazin gN The land has been over-used for maN8 years, and with÷elittle pinewood availa ble in many areas, animal dung has to be used as÷efuel, instead of as a fertilis er.÷e÷eAn earlier social factor contribu ting to the misuse of land was the role÷ eplayed by the semh-feudal landlords who controlled much of the country,÷eex|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 3 Feb 21:00/04 |B2202205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m3354tortin g enormous taxes or crop returns from fa rmers and share-croppers.÷e÷ekhen the De rghe - the new govdrnment M came to powe r it nationalised the÷eland for the bfne fit of the peasantsN Unfortunatfly, the role-model÷eadopted was somewhat along the lines of russian collectivisations a nd it÷ehas experienced considerable oper ational problems In addition, the main ÷epower base of the government was in th e cities, and in ordfr to keep÷efood-pri ces low for the townspeople, farmers wer e paid low prices for÷etheir produce. D his further decreasdd their longMterm in terest in÷eimproving the land.÷e÷eAmid c onsiderable controversy, the government has re-settled people from÷ethe poorest highland areas to the lowlands of the fa r west.÷eunfortunatley, much of this lan d was virgin, there was no adfquate÷einf ra-structure so it was difficult to keep the farmers supplied with all÷ethei|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 3 Feb 21:04/23 |B2203205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m26B7r need sN In some areas water had to be drille d forN In others, the÷eland was water-l oggfd and ridden with malaria and tsetse fly. Not enough÷emoney was available t o get the scheme properly off the ground .÷e÷eThe needs of modern state, for exam ple, transport, oil, and building, have÷ eput pressure on the government to devel op cash-crops for export.÷eUnfortunately the market value of the main cash crops has tended to fall,÷eforcing the govern ment to produce even more cash crops to achieve their÷eaims, and taking some of the better land out of production.÷e÷eOt her factors covered in the programme inc lude a brief history of Ethiopia÷eand th e Horn of Africa, explaining why Ethiopi a has wars on its hands, and÷ethe reluct ance of Western governments to give the country much in the way÷eof dfvelopment aid. (Aid set aside by Britian, the Wor ld Bank and the E C÷e÷e÷e |c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 3 Feb 21:04/50 |B2204205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m3A19 M 1 -÷e÷e÷e÷ewas frozen until the government would agree to ref orm its agricultural÷epolicies and offer better incentives to farmers.)÷e÷eFinal ly, the programme hopes to look at some of the successes and failures÷eof the Et hiopian Relief and Rehabilitation Commis sion and the÷einternational aid agencies in getting aid to the starving, and in÷ einitiating longMterm development scheme s.÷e÷eAfter the programme, the students might like to discuss what they consider ÷eto be the paramount factor in causing the famines since the 1970's;÷eevaluate the difference between emergency and dev elopment aid; consider÷ethe moral implic ations of withMholding aid from countrie s of which the÷edonor governments disapp rove; and research further into the subj ect of÷einternational interdependance.÷e ÷e÷eRecommfnded Books:÷e÷eEthiopia: The Challenge of Hungfr, Graham Hancock|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 3 Feb 21:01/18 |B2205205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m3D75, Vict or Gollancz 1985÷e÷eIntroduction to the EconomIc History of Ethiopia, Richard P ankhurst,÷eSedgwick and Jackson 1961÷e÷e Ethiopia Engravfd, ed R Pankhurst and L eila Ingrams, Keegan Paul 1987÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e M 2 -÷e÷e÷e|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 3 Feb 21:05/02 |B2205205 or Gollancz 1985÷e÷eIntrnduction to the EcoNFmic History of Ethiopia, Richard P ankhurst,÷eSedgwick and Jackson 1961÷e÷e Ethiopia Engravdd, ed R Pankhurst and L eila Ingrams, Keec n Paul 1987÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷—|e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e 2 -÷e÷—÷e|c