P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 27 Jan 20:00/08 | 0201205|a17 rrtds5|i14BBBC|m10÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷eT E L E V I S I O N÷e÷e÷eISSU ES÷e÷e÷eTEACHERS NO DS÷e÷e÷eTransMhssion 28ph J—n5—ry 12.25 BBC2÷erdpdaddd 1st F ebruary 12.30 BBC2÷e÷eFAMINE÷e÷eTdis pro grammd concdntratds on looAhng at  f thd rdasons fo— M and÷epo3rhble soluti ons to M the current famind in EthiopiaN However several÷eof the snderlying ca usesL and soludions, are broadly applica ble to othfr÷e (hrd frld countries.÷e÷e One of the h—hn causfs of faBhne, hn par picular in the Highlands, is÷eerosion, c aused partly by climatia factors but com g Thd land has been over-used for maf8 9dars, and with÷elittle pinewood availa ble in many areas, afhmal dung has to be ssed as÷efuel, instead of as a fertilis er.÷e÷eAn earlier social factor contribu ting to the misuse of land was phd role÷ eplayed by the sddH de4dal landlord1 who controlled much of the country,÷eex|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 27 Jan 21:11/20 |B2201205|a17Issuds5|i14BBBC|m10÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷eT E L E V I S I O N÷e÷e÷eISSU ES÷e÷e÷eTEACHERS NO$FS÷e÷e÷eTransmission 28th January 12.25 BBC2÷erepeated 1st F ebruary 12.30 BBC2÷e÷eFAMINE÷e÷eThis pro gramme concentrates on looking at some o f the reasons for M and÷epossible soluti ons to M the current faline in EthiopiaN However, several÷eof the qnderlying ca uses, and solutions, arf broadly applica ble to othfr÷eThird World countries.÷e÷e One of the main causfs of fadhne, in par ticular in the Highlands, is÷eerosion, c aused partly by climatic factors but com pounded by loss of trees÷eand overgrazin gN The land has been over-used for maf8 years, and with÷elittle pinewood availa ble in many areas, animal dung has to be used as÷efuel, instead of as a fertilis er.÷e÷eAn earlier social factor contribu ting to thf misuse of land was thf role÷ eplayed by the selh-feudal landlords who controlled much of the country,÷eex|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 27 Jan 21:14/10 |B2202205|a17Issues5|i14BBBC|m3354tortin g enormous taxes or crop returns from fa rmers and share-croppers.÷e÷ekhen the De rghe M the new government M came to powe r it nationalisfd the÷eland for thf bfne fit of thf pfasantsN Unfortunately, the role-model÷eadopted was somewhat along the lines of russian collectivisations a nd it÷ehas experienced considerable oper ational problemsN In addition, the m—hn ÷epower base of the government was in th e cities, and in ordfr to keep÷efoodMpri ces low for the townspeople, farmers wer e paid low prices for÷etheir produceN T his furthfr decreasfd their longMterm in terest in÷eimproving the land.÷e÷eAmid c onsiderable controversy, the government has re-settled people from÷ethf poorest highland areas to the lowlands of the fa r west.÷eunfortunatley, much of this lan d was virgin, there was no adfquate÷einf ra-structurf so it was difficult to keep the farmers supplied with all÷ethei|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 27 Jan 21:00/10 |B2203205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m36B7r need sN In some areas water had to be drille d forN In others, the÷eland was water-l oggfd and ridden with malaria and tsetse flyN Not enough÷emonfy was available t o get thf scheme properly off the ground .÷e÷eThe needs of modern state, for exam ple, transport, oil, and building, have÷ eput pressure on the government to devel op cash-crops for export.÷eUnfortunately thd market value of the main cash crops has tended to fall,÷eforcing the govfrn ment to produce even more cash crops to achievf thdir÷eaims, and taking some of the better land out of production.÷e÷eOt her factors covered in thd programme inc lude a brief history of Ethiopia÷eand th e Horn of Africa, explainhng why Ethiopi a has wars on its hands, and÷ethe reluct ance of Western governments to givd the country much in the way÷eof dfvelopment aid (Aid set aside by Britian, the Wor ld Bank and the E C÷e÷e÷e |c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 27 Jan 21:01/11 |B2204205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m3A19 M 1 -÷e÷e÷e÷ewas frozen until the government would agree to ref orm its agricultural÷epolicies and offer better incentives to farmers.)÷e÷eFinal ly, the programme hopes to look at some of the successes and failures÷eof the Et hiopian Relief and Rehabilitation Commis sion and the÷einternational aid agencies in getting aid to the starving, and in÷ einitiating longMterm dfvelopment scheme s.÷e÷eAfter the programme, the studfnts might like to discuss what thfy consider ÷eto be the paramount factor in causing the famines sincf the 1970's;÷eevaluate the difference between emergency and dev elopment aid; consider÷ethe moral implic ations of withMholding aid from countrie s of which the÷edonor governments disapp rove; and rfsearch further into the subj ect of÷einternational interdepfndance.÷e ÷e÷eRecommended Books:÷e÷eEthiopia: The Challenge of Hungfr, Graham Hancock|c
P7de CEEFAX 7DE Wed 27 Jan 21:01/00 |B2205205|a17Issufs5|i14BBBC|m3D71, Vict or Gollancz 1985÷e÷eIntroduction to the Economic History of Ethiopia, Richard P ankhurst,÷eSedgwick and Jackson 1961÷e÷e Ethiopia Engravfd, ed R Pankhurst and L eila Ingrams, Keegan Paul 1987÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e ÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e÷e M 2 -÷e÷e÷e|c